There are just under than 50 ministries in India, which are all headed by political appointees, entitled “minister” or “minister of state”. Ministers (or cabinet ministers) and ministers of state (non-cabinet ministers) are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister. Constitutionally, the total number of cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, should not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Lok Sabha (lower house of Parliament). Many of the ministries such as the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Human Resource Development have both a minister and minister of state. In such instances the minister of state acts as deputy or has specific responsibilities allocated to them. The “secretary” is the most senior civil servant in each ministry.