There are over 25 government ministries in Papua New Guinea and these are known as ‘departments’. The Constitution stipulates that there shall not be fewer than six ministers or more than one quarter of the number of Members of Parliament at any given time. All ministers other than the prime minister are appointed by the head of state, in accordance with the advice of the prime minister. The ministers’ titles, portfolios and responsibilities are determined by the prime minister, and each minister is responsible for the effective governance and functions of the duties that their department has been tasked with. The highest ranking civil servant in each ministry is entitled ‘the secretary’. Some of the key ministries include the Department of Commerce and Industry, the Department of Culture and Tourism, and the Department of Education.