Find Water and Sanitation expertise in United Republic of Tanzania
- Water supply
The Ministry of Water is responsible for the management of water resources in Tanzania. There are three major bodies operating under the Ministry of Water: the Drilling and Dam Construction Agency (DDCA), the Water Development Management Institute and Maji Central Stores which supplies materials and equipment to maintain water supply projects in rural and urban areas.
The Zanzibar Water Authority (ZAWA) is a semi-autonomous body which manages water supply services and resources in Zanzibar and the Energy and Water Utilities Regulatory Authority (EUWRA) regulates the industry in urban areas across the country.
In 2010, 53% of the population of Tanzania has access to improved water sources. In rural areas access to such resources was 44% and 79% in urban areas (2010). Tanzania’s water supply comes principally from nine hydrological zones, which are Lake Rukwa, Lake Nyasa, lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Pangani, Wami/Ruvu, Rufiji, Ruyuma and Southern Coast and the drainage baisins of Lake Eyasi, Manyara and Bubu.
One third of Tanzania is classified as arid to semi-arid and water supply to people living in these areas is challenging. Ground water is a common solution although sources are often unclean or contaminated by nearby toxic drainage systems. Surface water is equally a problematic source of water as it can contain faecal waste and bacteria. Substantial investment has been made since the launch of the National Water Policy in 2002, with support from the World Bank and other multilateral and bilateral aid agencies, and participation of the private sector.
Given these supply and infrastructure problems, bottled water is an important resource in the country. Numerous companies supply bottled water, two examples registered with the Tanzania Bureau of Standards are Aqua Cool Ltd and Jarry’s Spa Products.
The private sector, as well as international multilateral and bilateral aid agencies, has invested in the water sector since the launch of the National Water Policy in 2002. The National Public Private Partnership Policy 2009 also supports such participation.
Sewerage and sanitation is generally poor with much sewage and waste being released back into the environment without having gone through adequate treatment. This is a particular problem in cities where high levels of sewage and high population leads to elevated risk of disease. In terms of access to sanitation the infrastructure needs much development; in 2008 an estimated 24% of the population had access to improved sanitation facilities; the figure was higher in urban areas compared to rural areas with 32% and 21%, respectively.
The UNICEF – run water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme is the responsibility of four ministries in Tanzania: the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, The Ministry of Water, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training and the Prime Minister’s Office. These bodies work in collaboration to improve the state of water, sanitation and hygiene for the whole population with particular focus on providing adequate water and sanitation facilities in schools and in the context of disaster relief.
Universal access to a clean supply of water is one of the key aims the Tanzania Vision 2025. The goal of Vision 2025 is to create the environment for a high quality of life for the people of Tanzania through environmental, economic and governmental improvement.