Lwengo is one of the newest districts in Uganda, formed from Masaka District in 2010. The chief town and commercial centre of the district is the town of Lwengo.
The area covered by the district is generally rural with subsistence agriculture and livestock rearing making up the main economic activities in the area. Positioned in the cattle corridor, the district is involved in some large scale cattle and goat rearing. Crop production tends to reflect the seasons and there is a particular focus on coffee.