Ghana’s constitution was approved by referendum in 1992. Ghana is a unitary republic with an executive presidency and a multiparty political system. The national legislature is the unicameral parliament; its 230 members are elected by universal adult suffrage every four years.

The president is head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He or she is elected by universal suffrage every four years for a maximum of two terms. A candidate must receive at least fifty per cent of the votes or submit to a new election within 21 days.

The president appoints a vice-president and council of ministers subject to approval by parliament. There are two presidential advisory bodies: a 25-member Council of State and a 20-member National Security Council chaired by the vice-president.

There are 10 regional ministers each assisted by a co-ordinating council.

The justice system is broadly based on English common law, and the law relating to personal relationships and contracts is rooted in Ghanaian customary law. The Supreme Court is the final court of appeal and has jurisdiction over constitutional issues. The Court of Appeal deals with appeals relating to the High Court, which has jurisdiction over all civil and criminal cases except where they concern treason.