Commonwealth Health Partnerships 2015 155 Brunei Darussalam KEY FACTS Joined Commonwealth: 1984 Population: 418,000 (2013) GDP p.c. growth: -0.5% p.a. 1990–2013 GDP p.c.: US$38,563 (2013) UN HDI 2014: World ranking 30 Life expectancy: 79 years (2013) Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births): 10 (2012) Largest contribution to mortality: Cardiovascular diseases Government health expenditure: 2.1% of GDP (2012) General information Brunei Darussalam (Brunei – ‘Abode of Peace’) is a small state in South-East Asia on the north-west coast of the island of Borneo, in the Indonesian Archipelago. Its 161-km coastline faces the South China Sea. On the land side, it is enclosed by the Malaysian state of Sarawak, which divides it in two. The districts of Brunei-Muara, Tutong and Belait make up the larger, western part of the country; Temburong district is in the east. Climate: Tropical, with high humidity and heavy rainfall. There is no distinct wet season; the wettest months are January and November. Much of the rain falls in sudden thundery showers. Environment: The most significant environmental issue is seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia. Population: 418,000 (2013); 77 per cent of people live in urban areas, concentrated along the coast. The population growth rate stood at 2.1 per cent p.a. between the years of 1990 and 2013. In 2013 the birth rate was 16 per 1,000 people (36 in 1970) and life expectancy was 79 years (67 in 1970). Malays comprise some two-thirds of the population and Chinese (about 11 per cent), Europeans, Indians and other races make up the balance. Economy: Brunei is classified as a high-income economy by the World Bank. Health Child and maternal health: The rate of infant mortality in Brunei Darussalam was eight deaths per 1,000 live births in 2013, with an under-five mortality rate of ten deaths per 1,000 live births in 2013. There has been some fluctuation in Brunei’s under-five mortality rate since 1990. In 2010 the three most prominent known causes of death for children below the age of five years were congenital anomalies (28 per cent), prematurity (25 per cent) and injuries (ten per cent). Other contributory causes were intrapartum-related infections (eight per cent), acute respiratory infections (four per cent), neonatal sepsis (two per cent) and diarrhoea (one per cent). In 2013 Brunei had an adjusted maternal mortality ratio of 27 deaths per 100,000 live births (estimate by UN agencies/World Bank). Burden of disease: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Brunei accounted for an estimated 81 per cent majority of all mortality in 2012. The most prevalent NCDs in Brunei are cardiovascular diseases, which accounted for 34 per cent of total deaths across all age groups in 2012. Cancer, diabetes and non-communicable variants of respiratory diseases contributed 17 per cent, 11 per cent and seven per cent to total mortality, respectively (2012). Communicable diseases along with maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions accounted for an estimated ten per cent of all mortality in Brunei in 2012. A government paper on HIV/AIDS reported that there were 63 people in the country living with HIV at the end of 2013. The country is free from malaria. Estimated incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has seen a very slight overall decrease in the period 1990–2013, peaking in 2000. Estimated mortality (when mortality data excludes cases comorbid with HIV) from TB has remained largely the same over this period, despite some fluctuation. The most commonly diagnosed mental illnesses in Brunei Darussalam are depression, personality disorder and anxiety.
Commonwealth Health Partnerships 2015
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