Commonwealth Health Partnerships 2015 165 Republic of Cyprus In 1974 Turkish troops invaded and occupied the northern 36 per cent of the Republic of Cyprus. This area was later declared independent. The secession has not been recognised internationally, except by Turkey. The UN and Commonwealth have for many years protested about the occupation and tried to resolve the problem by negotiation. Due to this division of the Republic of Cyprus, aggregated information is not always available. Economic and social data given here generally covers the government-controlled areas only, although legally and constitutionally the Republic of Cyprus includes the occupied north. KEY FACTS Joined Commonwealth: 1961 Population: 1,141,000 (2013) GDP p.c. growth: 0.9% p.a. 1990–2013 GNI p.c.: US$25,210 (2013) UN HDI 2014: World ranking 32 Life expectancy: 80 years (2013) Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births): 4 (2012) Largest contribution to mortality: Cardiovascular diseases Government health expenditure: 3.2% of GDP (2012) General information Cyprus is an oval-shaped island with a ‘pan-handle’ north-east peninsula in the eastern Mediterranean. Its closest mainland neighbours are Turkey (to the north), and Syria and Lebanon (to the east). Climate: Mediterranean type. Hot, dry summers (June–September) and mild, wet winters (November–March). Environment: The most significant environmental issues are limited water resources, due to lack of rain in the summer and pollution of the island’s largest aquifer by sea water; water pollution by sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; and loss of wildlife habitats due to urbanisation. Population: 1,141,000 (2013); 67 per cent of people live in urban areas. The population growth rate stood at 1.7 per cent p.a. between the years of 1990 and 2013. In 2013 the birth rate was 11 per 1,000 people (19 in 1970) and life expectancy was 80 years (71 in 1970). The population comprises Greek Cypriots (approximately 80 per cent) and Turkish Cypriots, and small populations of Armenians, Maronites and ‘Latins’ (the term used in Cyprus for Roman Catholics of European origin). The population of the occupied north was estimated at 257,000 in 2005 and included around 160,000 Turkish illegal settlers. Economy: Cyprus is classified as a high-income economy by the World Bank. Health Child and maternal health: The rate of infant mortality in Cyprus was three deaths per 1,000 live births in 2013, with an under-five mortality rate of four deaths per 1,000 live births in 2013 – down from 11 deaths in 1990. In 2012 the two most prominent causes of death for children below the age of five years were congenital anomalies (37 per cent) and prematurity (22 per cent). Other contributory causes were injuries (six per cent), acute respiratory infections and neonatal sepsis (both three per cent). In 2013 Cyprus had an adjusted maternal mortality ratio of ten deaths per 100,000 live births (estimate by UN agencies/World Bank). Burden of disease: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Cyprus accounted for an estimated 90 per cent of all mortality in 2012. In 2012 the most prevalent NCDs were cardiovascular diseases (39 per cent) and cancer (24 per cent). Diabetes and noncommunicable variants of respiratory diseases contributed seven per cent and six per cent to total mortality, respectively (2012). Injuries accounted for six per cent of deaths in 2012. Communicable diseases along with maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions accounted for an estimated four per cent of all mortality in 2012. A government paper on HIV/AIDS reported that less than 0.1 per cent of the population were living with HIV in 2012. Cyprus is considered a non-endemic country for malaria by the World Health Organization. Estimated incidences of tuberculosis (TB) have increased slightly overall during the period 1990–2013, and estimated mortality (when mortality data excludes cases comorbid with HIV) has roughly doubled over this time.
Commonwealth Health Partnerships 2015
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